Deep Economy. The Wealth of Communities and the Durable Future.
Bill McKibben. New York: Time Books, 2007.
Sprinkles the Bunny "views with alarm"
Bill McKibben's latest book
Deep Economy is an important book both because of what he gets
right and what he doesnít get right. McKibben isnít a vegetarian,
but vegetarians should read it anyway -- it shows the direction in which
many people are moving in response to the growing environmental crisis.
It leaves me alternately wanting to praise it because of his excellent
summary of the overarching problems of our time, and blast him because
of the things that he totally flubs.
His first chapter, "After Growth," is brilliant. He says
there are three things wrong with our consumer culture: (1) it breeds
inequality, (2) weíre running out of resources, and generally, out of
planet with our wasteful habits, and (3) it doesnít make us happy. Weíre
oppressing the poor and wrecking the environment and itís not even
making us happy. Exactly! Throughout the book, he develops the theme of
the need for community and the relationship between this need and
environmentalism. These are the areas in which vegetarians, I believe,
have the most to learn, so this is not a book to be lightly dismissed
just because he isnít a vegetarian.
McKibbenís persistent avoidance of the vegetarian issue --
something he just bathes in silence in this book -- is troubling. I donít
think heís avoiding the issue because he hasnít heard of it; it
appears to be a conscious decision. Iíve seen global warming
organizations dodge this issue in the same way. StopGlobalWarming.org,
for example, in 2007 listed 30 ways in which you can "take action" --
but not eating the products of the cattle industry, which the FAO lists
as the single most important contributor to global warming, doesnít
even make it onto the list. (To their credit, though, they have
since added it.) McKibbenís rationale (and, initially, those at
StopGlobalWarming.org), I would guess, is that this is a polarizing
debate which it just doesnít pay to address if you can avoid it.
What set up this non-dialogue? I regret to say that the animal rights
movement can also share some of the blame. The animal rights movement
has really set the movement back with its aggressive, take-no-prisoners
approach to politics, which has discouraged people from talking about
the subject in a public arena, and led them to pidgeon-hole the whole
movement as "the animal rights crazies." Even if vegetarians
had a more mellow image, McKibben still might not be a vegetarian -- but
eating animals would be a lot less plausible than it is, and writers
like McKibben would be more quickly taken to task for such oversights.
But I digress.
Growth and Food
In the second chapter, "The Year of Eating Locally," he
describes his experiment with eating locally one winter. This is well
thought out. Itís more than just eating locally produced food,
though, itís small local farms, which are more labor-intensive but actually
outproduce large farms on a per-acre basis. Small farms fail because at
current prices it makes sense to substitute oil for people; energy and
land are relatively cheap, people are expensive. He also discusses at
length Cubaís sudden, and involuntary, encounter with "peak
oil" -- after the collapse of Soviet communism, and with a U. S.
trade embargo, their oil imports essentially disappeared. The whole
country went onto a more vegetarian, less industrial-scale diet, with
urban gardens and involuntarily organic agriculture.
But here is where I start to part company with McKibben. If you are
going to eat environmentally, there are three important ways you can
contribute to this: (1) eat low on the food chain, (2) eat less
processed food, (3) eat local food. Eating locally is the least
important of these. In fact, as the Pimentels point out in Food,
Energy, and Society, while food is often transported for thousands
of miles, the trip to the grocery store by the consumer typically
consumes slightly more energy than the transportation of the food to the
store in the first place!
It is processing and production, not transportation, that really
consumes the energy in agriculture. It actually might take less overall
energy to grow and ship less energy-intensive rice in from the
Philipines, than the more energy-intensive irrigated rice from
California -- even if you live in California. Finally, eating high on
the food chain always wastes resources, typically requiring 5, 10, or 20
times the land, water and energy than a corresponding amount of plant
foods. The FAO report on global warming recently reported that the
single greatest cause of global warming is livestock production
-- greater even than driving cars.
The Importance of Community
Chapters 3 and 4, "All for One and One for All" and
"The Wealth of Communities," discusses the importance of
community. Our society is saturated with hyper-individualism, and we
need more emphasis on the community rather than the individual. He talks
about community radio, NPR, local transportation, Curitiba and Portland,
cohousing and Vermont Family Forests, local currency and town meetings.
By concentrating on the local, we develop the connections we will need
in a resource-short world.
This is one of McKibbenís strong points -- it is where I tend to
side with McKibben over against the animal rights organizations. So
listen up, animal rights types: here is the nub of the problem with the
concept of "animal rights." Itís not that you canít make an
intellectual case for the rights of animals. Itís that you are trying
to extend a concept ("rights") from humans to animals, when
the larger society is getting just a little tired of hearing about the
individual and wants to hear more about communities. This is a public
relations issue, but an important one.
McKibben is right, and he echoes themes found in the books by William
Strauss and Neil Howe, that American society sometimes goes too far in
the direction either of the community, or the individual, and then needs
to be brought back. At the present time, the whole idea of
"rights" has been overemphasized in society as a whole and
people are tired of hearing all this whining from people who are
complaining about their "rights." Yes, people do have rights,
but society suffers from a surfeit of hyper-individualism, of which the
preoccupation with "my rights" to a gun, to a car, to a
lifestyle, and generally to trash the planet, is a primary symptom.
There is a developing consensus that weíre in a major environmental
crisis, and we need community more than individualism, responsible
action rather than complaints from gun owners and car owners.
"Individualism" is what created the consumer culture in the
But "animal rights" (as a slogan, that is) doesnít fit
very well in this dynamic. It made some sort of cultural sense in the
1980's and 1990's, when the Berlin Wall came down, the Soviet Union
collapsed, the economy was flying high, gas was cheap, and PCs appeared
on everyoneís desks. But times have changed. If you are going to make a
case for animals, I would emphasize the fact that animals are part of
the global community, that there is a network of nature and that we are
making the situation worse by eating at the top of the food chain. Thatís
what makes the almost unfathomable suffering of animals an issue to the
larger community today, not their "rights."
Back to Food
However, I simply canít agree with chapter 5 (the last chapter),
"The Durable Future." He starts out by talking about Chinaís
problems with land and water, correctly pointing out that there is no
way that the less developed countries of the world are going to
"grow" their way into prosperity. He protests also against the
drive for "efficiency" in large-scale agriculture. But then he
recommends a Heifer International project to spread rabbit farming as an
example, and recommends rabbits as a good food, interviewing someone who
wants to become "the Frank Perdue of bunnies"!
A typical "rabbit farm" cage which
resembles the standard factory farm battery cage
I see his point. Relative to, say, large-scale grain-fed beef
production, rabbits look relatively better. Raising rabbits for food
requires grass as fodder, not crops edible for humans (although they
will typically require something more than just grass). And itís done
on a much smaller scale than the actual Frank Perdue operations in the
But, in the first place, he should know better than to select Heifer
International as a role model. Heifer International is a
thinly-disguised attempt to spread meat and dairy habits to the
developing world in the name of "charity." After the Second
World War, for example, they sent dairy cows to Japan as a substitute
for the healthier traditional Japanese foods. Japanese rates of breast
cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer have been going up ever since.
It sounds like he has bought into some meat industry propaganda as a
substitute for research, and is assuming -- without question -- the
validity or at least the inevitability of meat consumption. Rabbits have
to be kept in cages just like chickens, and the same general kinds of
environmental and health problems that you have with
"factory-farmed" chickens will also apply to factory-farmed
Meat is part of the problem, not part of the solution. We evolved
from primates who are 99% vegetarian (some primates will eat termites or
the occasional small animal). Animal foods cause all kinds of
well-documented health problems in humans, which go up in direct
proportion as the quantity of animal foods consumed goes up. Yes, excess
protein is just as much a culprit here as excess fat, and animal foods
totally lack all fiber -- and fat, protein, and lack of fiber are the
three key ingredients fueling heart disease and cancer. Moreover, any
kind of animal agriculture requires extra overhead for producing and
processing, a sort of "mini-factory-farm" setup, and is
Why are Rabbits Cute?
Now you may ask why I would raise an issue of animal well-being in an
article on the environment. Doesnít this raise exactly the issue of
"animal rights" which I have spent some paragraphs trying to
smack down? Nature does not regard rabbits as "cute"; wolves
or hawks would devour a rabbit as a snack without a thought.
But humans do
have the capacity to care for animals. There is an instinctive feeling
of sympathy that we have for animals; all cultures have their favorite
animals which they protect. Psychologists have noticed that this especially present in children, who often identify more with animals
than with the rather mysterious adult world. This sympathy is typically
"unlearned" on the path to adulthood -- though all cultures
preserve a vestige of it in their proscription of cruelty to animals,
their adoption of pets, and in some cultures (e. g. Hinduism) outright
Where does this sympathy for animals come from? How could evolution
have made such an elementary mistake? The reason is that animals are not
our "natural" food. We have the capacity, as the situation
demands, to eat the occasional animal for food, but it is not intended
as a staple and does harm to us and to our environment if we make it
such. Millions of years of evolution canít be wrong.
Nutmeg and Sprinkles
Which brings me back to the issue of animal rights. In the old days
(25 years ago), I would have sent Bill McKibben a picture of my bunnies
and protested against the obvious cruelty of his proposal. Whatís the
point of gratuitous cruelty to animals when it isnít even healthy?
Alas, I donít think that approach is going to fly either with McKibben
or the public that is likely to read his book. They have already heard
of animal rights and have filed it away in the category of
"crackpot ideas pushed aggressively which it isnít worth my
energy to wade into." They may think about animal rights, but itís
pretty low on their priority list -- right above, perhaps, coming up
with snappy replies to the Jehovahís Witnesses that come knocking at
This situation leaves me angry and sad. It makes me want to, well,
blow up something, or do exactly what those animal rights crazies I
criticized earlier are doing, to get his attention. Or it makes me angry
that the animal rights movement has "poisoned the well" of
public dialogue on the issue, a result which cannot easily be undone.
Somehow, we have to bring the idea of concern for animals back into
the public discourse, other than through the slogan of "animal
rights." To me, vegetarianism is healthier, more
environmental, and kinder to animals, and that creates a strong prima
facie case that we should not eat animals -- a case which grows stronger
the more closely that it is examined. The environmental case for
vegetarianism is the way that this issue is going to be brought,
forcefully, into peopleís homes, because eventually resource shortages
are going to affect the price of food. The inefficiency of
livestock agriculture is going to matter.
McKibben sees part of the problem, that food should be produced
locally. But this is not even the most
important part. If you want to save the planet, eating lower on the food
chain is the most important thing and eating food that does not require
a lot of processing and packaging is the next. Eating locally is the least
important item, and even with eating locally it saves slightly more
energy on average to bicycle to the
store to get your food than to drive a car to the store and buy locally
grown food. And if you want to advocate new community values, why
don't you try a little kindness instead of ruthless exploitation of
Because this is not the result McKibben wants to see, he tries to
force "locally grown" into his overall idea of "deep
economy" by just blanking out the issues of processing, packaging,
and eating low on the food chain -- the most critical food issues facing
the planet today. This flaw in his book is fatal to his overall project.
Food is critical and we canít make a mistake of this magnitude in this
arena. Imagine 1 billion Chinese and nearly as many Indians suddenly
deciding that they want a little more chicken and fish. If we run out of
oil, worst case, itís back to the horse and buggy. But if we run out
of food because weíre stressing out the planet on a resource-intensive
diet, itís an entirely different matter.
Sprinkles investigates "Deep Economy"
April 26, 2007 (slightly updated March 28, 2008)